There are various ways to clearly identify a grape variety. In the past, this was done exclusively on the basis of the external characteristics of the vine on the basis of the phenotype or habit, i.e. the morphological characteristics of the plant parts shoot, leaf, grape and berry, as well as the taste of the fruit. Further criteria are the vegetation cycle-related characteristics such as the time of flowering, budding or ripening. Until the end of the 1980s, this was the only way to determine the identity of grape varieties. Since this method is not 100% accurate, misinterpretations often occurred. A luminary of visual variety identification was the French ampelographer Pierre Galet (1921-2019).
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