The very old system of education exists under various names such as Albarello, Basket Training, Bäumchen, Bockerziehung, Busch, Bush Vines, En vaso, Goblet and Vase. It was already used in ancient times by the Greeks and adopted by the Romans. It is a special form of head training. The vines are trained in the classical form without any support (wires, frames, etc.) or tied up to single stakes so that a cup-like shape is created (gobelet = cup or goblet), or they are also trained creeping along the ground. Typical are the relatively short vines with a large, spherical head, depending on age, usually only about 20 to 40 centimetres above the ground. Two to a maximum of five cordons (shanks) are well distributed around the head, each with a fruit cone with two to three eyes on it. Cordons that have become too long are rejuvenated during pruning. The vines are either given a short stake as a support or the summer shoots are left to support themselves by being tied together. In particularly dry areas of France or Italy, the shoots are allowed to spread unhindered in all directions to shade the soil.
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