This refers to the process of increasing international interdependence in the fields of business, politics, culture, environment and communication. This intensification of global relations takes place at the level of individuals, societies, institutions and states. The main causes are considered to be technical progress, especially in communication and transport technologies, and political decisions to liberalise world trade (source WIKIPEDIA). Of course, viticulture is also affected by this phenomenon and has caused major changes in this area. Above all, globalisation is expressed here by the mergers of wine trading and wine production companies across countries and continents, which for their part had often already taken over many wineries and wine estates in the course of their expansion. This led to the emergence of giant global corporations to an increasing extent, especially from the mid-1980s onwards.
But globalisation also had and still has a great influence on the type and quality of wine products. The big companies reacted to the new consumer preferences for the most consistent and recognisable quality possible (so-called Coca-Cola wines) with inexpensive branded wines, which are sold in gigantic quantities via supermarket chains. Producers in the New World adapted to this new situation much more quickly. As a result, the European markets, some of which had conventional and outdated trade and production structures, suffered major market losses, resulting in a lack of competitiveness (see Crise Viticole).
Other major changes are being heralded by joint ventures between large companies in wine-growing regions with cheap production techniques, for example in Argentina, China, Chile, India, Mexico, Portugal and Spain. This is leading to discussions about any necessary changes in the methods of vineyard management and winemaking in European viticulture. Wine legislation and practices in these countries are usually subject to stricter rules, which in turn has an impact on competitiveness. The European Union is reacting to this with a wine trade agreement concluded with the USA. See also the world's largest wine companies and wine production volumes.