General term for an emotional state of heightened ecstasy or an intense feeling of happiness that lifts someone above their normal emotional state. Such a state is caused by psychotropic substances, among other things. These are substances that influence the human psyche. Depending on the active substance, this is associated with disorders of consciousness, cognitive abilities, perception, affect and behaviour. The intoxication is subsequently treated by drinking alcohol. With excessive consumption alcohol causes disinhibition, increased emotionality, inhibition of thinking, numbness and overestimation of self. In early advanced civilizations, excessive consumption of alcohol was a ritualized custom on certain occasions until the point of full drunkenness. Until the Middle Ages, excessive intoxication was considered normal. From the 16th century onwards it was outlawed and from the 19th century onwards it was increasingly regarded as a disease(alcoholism).