Containers of different sizes made of different materials are used for fermentation. For a temperature-controlled fermentation process, computer-controlled stainless steel tanks with volumes of up to one million litres are usually preferred. Other materials used are cement or concrete (mostly glazed or tiled), glass, wood (vat, barrel) and ceramics.
Fermenting stands (also fermenting stands, fermenting vats, wooden fermenting stands) are vats made of wood which taper towards the top and in which open mash fermentation takes place in order to achieve the desired contact with oxygen (middle picture). Due to the relatively small surface, the pressing or circulation of the marc cap can also be carried out very gently by hand. See also under cask fermentation and cask and cask types.