Vessels of different sizes made of different materials are used for fermentation. For a temperature-controlled fermentation process, stainless steel tanks with volumes of up to one million litres controlled by a computer programme are preferred. Other materials used are cement or concrete (usually glazed or tiled), glass, wood (vats, barrels) and ceramics.
Fermentation stands (also fermentation vats, Holzgärständer) are vats made of wood and tapering towards the top, in which open mash fermentation takes place for the purpose of desired oxygen contact (centre picture). Due to the relatively small surface area, the pomace can also be gently pressed or circulated by hand. See also under barrel fer mentation and barrel and barrel types.
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Diplom-Sommelier, Weinakademiker und Weinberater, Volders (Österreich)