Process in the preparation of red wine in which the phenols (colouring substances and tannins) are extracted or released from the dark grape skins through maceration and mash fermentation. These substances are mainly extracted by the alcohol, the colouring substances are extracted first, the tannin-rich tannins need a little longer. Above all, the soft tannins are desired, and they come out first. Today, this process is precisely controlled in order to allow the desired amount of the substances in question to enter the wine as accurately as possible. When the wine has enough structure, it is drawn off the mash. This can be supported or enhanced to the desired extent by various technical processes or special fermentation tanks. Extracting processes include autovinification, cryomaceration, electroporation, skin contact, mash heating, red fermentation and overpumping.