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Collective term for the more than one hundred different compounds of organic acids with alcohols, during the formation of which water is split off. The name was created by the German chemist Leopold Gmelin (1788-1853), who became famous with the "Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie". The esters of the so-called lower alcohols are often fragrant, intensely flavoured, sweet-fruity liquids that are also used in the production of perfumes and fruit essences. In winemaking, they are produced by the reaction of oxygen, acids and alcohol during fermentation (so-called fermentation esters), requiring enzymes in the process. The esters form the fruity aroma of a young wine and are mainly perceived by smell (secondary aroma). The most common ester in wine is acetic acid ethyl ester (ethyl acetate, acetic ester) from the reaction of acetic acid with ethanol. Another aromatic acetic acid compound is acetic acid isoamyl es ter. But all other acids such as tartaric acid, malic acid etc. also form esters, but these are far less odour-intensive. During bottle ageing, further esters are formed (esterification), which in extreme cases can take decades. This also changes the bouquet (tertiary aroma) in the wine

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