Dialysis is a concentration-driven membrane process that helps to remove very small particles (ions or molecules) from solutions. If electrical voltage is used for this, it is called electrodialysis. The process has been used since the 1960s to desalinate seawater. In the EU, the process may be used in winemaking under certain conditions. The membranes must not cause excessive changes in the physico-chemical composition and sensory characteristics of the wine. Since the 1990s, it has been used for the removal of tartar (tartrate stabilisation) or for alcohol reduction. The spinning cone column process, on the other hand, which is similar in approach, is only permitted in the EU to a limited extent.
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