Designation (also direct, self-bearing, French: Producteur direct) for rootless grape varieties that have not been grafted. As the name suggests, they stand "on their own feet", so to speak. The term was first coined in connection with the introduction in the second half of the 19th century of the now common practice of grafting scions onto American rootstocks. This was ultimately successful in combating phylloxera after many failed attempts. Before the appearance of the pest in Europe, this measure was not necessary and thus all vines were direct carriers. Certain American v ines are often cultivated as direct carriers (especially in the USA), as some of them are more or less phylloxera resistant and thus no grafting is necessary.
The glossary is a monumental achievement and one of the most important contributions to wine knowledge. Of all the encyclopaedias I use on the subject of wine, it is by far the most important. That was the case ten years ago and it hasn't changed since.Andreas Essl