The US institute NYSAES (New York State Agricultural Experiment Station) in Geneva in the US state of New York in the Finger Lakes AVA area began viticultural research in the 1880s as a department of Cornell University. One of the focal points is the development of frost- and fungus-resistant grape varieties through complex crosses of American, European and Asian vines. More than 50 new varieties were created for the production of table gra pes, grape juice and grape jelly, but also as wine grapes. These were Alden, Brocton, Buffalo, Canadice, Cayuga White, Chardonel, Corot Noir, GR 7, Hector, Himrod, Horizon, Keuka, Marquis, Melody, New York Muscat, Ontario, Portland, Pontiac, Ripley, Romulus, Ruby (2), Schuyler, Sheridan, Suffolk Red, Traminette and Yates. Over 1,200 frost tolerant genotypes are made available for international breeding.