Device (also cork screw or plug puller) for removing the corks from the bottle neck. The cork has become the most common bottle stopper in Europe since the middle of the 17th century. In the beginning, the corks were not driven completely into the bottle neck, which made removal somewhat easier. The first primitive tools were small, pointed iron thorns with which the cork was often removed in pieces. The T-corkscrew, named after the shape, is considered the oldest and most common variant and consists only of a spiral attached to the cross handle. The corkscrew was first mentioned in 1681, the English term "Corkscrew" was coined around 1720. Until then, also "Worm" or "Bottlescrew" was common. If the spiral has a so-called "soul" as in the picture on the right (so that a match fits into the inner winding), it is called a spiral. The soul prevents the cork from crumbling
In the second half of the eighteenth century there were the first bell corkscrews in which the process of pulling was supported by the use of a threaded rod. The Englishman Samuel Hershaw applied for his patent in 1795. A small disc above the spiral stopped the screwing movement of the corkscrew into the cork and set the cork in rotation. The resulting reduced friction of the cork on the bottle neck allows the cork to be pulled gently. An improved version was developed in 1802 by his compatriot Edward Thomason. His patent continued the rotary movements of the screw-in and initiated the drawing process via a second, counter-rotating shaft thread. In the wooden version shown in the picture on the right, the spindle is turned into the cork with the upper cross handle. When it is completely screwed in, the cork is pulled out through the thread with the help of the lower cross handle.
There are countless variations of the scissors corkscrew (also joint, link or accordion corkscrew). The first of these was patented in England in 1884 by Marshall Arthur Wier. Improved models made of nickel-plated steel or brass were first developed in 1903 by compatriot Henry David Armstrong and finally a model patented in 1928 by Frenchman Marie Jules Léon Joseph Bart under the brand name Zig-Zag corkscrew. It consists of zig-zag shaped, superimposed scissor links with two or more pairs. The spiral is first turned into the cork. Then, by pulling the handle at the top, the scissors, which have been pushed together, are pulled apart and the cork is removed relatively easily by lever action. Many also have a cap lifter (two small hooks in the picture on the right).
With the winged corkscrew, the ring (also known as "bell" or "cage") is placed on the neck of the bottle. The spindle is screwed into the cork until the ring is tight, with the levers (wings) on both sides moving upwards. Then the wings are pressed down, which pulls the cork out of the bottle neck. The spring-tongue corkscrew (also called a clasp corkscrew) consists of two tongues (clasps) of spring steel of different lengths. These are placed on the right and left between the cork and the bottle neck and are moved in a rocking motion between the cork and the neck and the cork is then unscrewed under tension. This form is particularly suitable for problematic (brittle) corks.
With the lever corkscrew, the bottle is fixed by means of the pincer-like device. Then the lever is moved forward, whereby the spindle bores into the cork. Now the lever is put back and the cork is released from the bottle. A special form is the overpressure corkscrew, in which a hollow needle is pushed through the cork into the bottle. Gas (e.g. air) is conveyed through this needle into the bottle, creating an overpressure that pushes the cork out of the bottle. The Waiter's knife is a three-part set consisting of a corkscrew, a bottle opener for crown caps and a small knife for removing the capsule. A famous brand is named after the French community of Laguiole, where it is produced.
All corkscrews serve the same purpose, namely to transport the cork out of the bottle neck as easily, quickly and cleanly as possible without damage. An important criterion is that no cork residue should get into the bottle. This is not only for aesthetic reasons, but the cork could also be contaminated with bacteria. Therefore the spiral should not pierce the cork or come into contact with the wine, as metal can cause a chemical reaction or metallic taste.
T-KZ right: From KMJ, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link
Bell concentration camp on the left: Torquato
Bell concentration camp right: By Véronique PAGNIER, Public domain, Link
Scissors concentration camp: VinoWo
Lever-KZ: From BMK/Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link
Overpressure CC: By itself - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link
Spring reeds-KZ: By Constantin Vittoratos - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link