Colourless, sour-tasting acid (citric acid) that occurs in many plants - especially in citrus fruits, mushrooms and milk. In wine, it is one of the non-volatile acids and is present in a proportion of 0.1 to 0.3 g/l. In ice wine and noble sweet wines, the proportion can be higher. In ice wine and noble sweet wines, the proportion can rise to 6 g/l. During malolactic fermentation, it is broken down by the lactic acid bacteria. Citric acid is also used for stabilising heavy metals or against iron turbidity.
Citric acid also plays an important role in the removal of tartar, as well as in the cleaning of acid residues and other contaminating substances in containers, hoses and cellar machines. It is suitable for this purpose because it is naturally present in wine. Citric acid is produced artificially by means of the mould Aspergillus niger. See also a list of all wine ingredients under the keywords aroma substances and total extract.
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