The Catholic monastic order emerged as a reform movement from the Benedictine order and originated in Burgundy, France. It was founded in 1098 by Robert de Molesme (1029-1111) in the ancestral monastery of Cîteaux north of Beaune. As a significant distinction, the monks wear white robes instead of the black Benedictine ones. Saint Bernard de Clairvaux (1090-1153) founded the Clairvaux monastery in 1115 and issued a new religious rule. As soon as a Cistercian monastery counted 60 monks, twelve of them had to leave and found a new monastery, which led to a proliferation of the order. This led to a tremendous expansion, for by 1153 there were already 400 abbeys and 100 years later 2,000 Cistercian and 1,400 nunneries throughout Europe.