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The winery is located in the commune of Saint-Julien in the Médoc (Bordeaux) in the area of the same name. The estate, which was created from a division of the Beychevelle Barony, was acquired in 1795 by the eponymous Bertrand Ducru. The second part of the name is derived from the pebble soil (beau caillou = beautiful pebble). In the 1855 Bordeaux Classification it was awarded second place (Deuxième Cru Classé). It is said that the classification is due to the fact that Ducru-Beaucaillou was constantly served during the meetings of the classification committee.

In 1866 the estate was purchased by the Johnson family, who sold it to Desbartes de Burke in 1928. It was finally purchased in 1941 by Francis Borie (1890-1953). His son Jean-Eugène Borie (1921-1998) then developed it into a top winery. The estate is now run by his second son Bruno Borie (the first son is François-Xavier Borie). The property of this branch of the Borie family includes other wineries under the name Châteaux & Domaines Jean-Eugène Borie (see the closely interwoven Borie and Castéja family history under Borie-Manoux).

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