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One of the 17 autonomous regions of Spain or historical landscape (also Old Castile, Spanish Castilla y León) with around 66,000 km² in the north of the Iberian peninsula, also known as the "land of castles". This was once the border region between the Christian and Moorish worlds, which is why many border fortresses were built here. It is considered the heartland of modern-day Spain. In 1492, the Moors were expelled and Valladolid became the capital instead of Burgos. It remained so until 1561, when King Philip II. (1527-1598) chose Madrid in New Castile as the new capital. In the extremely eventful 16th century, viticulture experienced a heyday due to the needs of the royal court and the conquered provinces in the New World. Today, mainly red wine is produced, the predominant grape varieties being the red Mencía, Garnacha Tinta and Tinto del País (Tempranillo) and the white Verdejo, Viura (Macabeo) and Palomino. The areas classified as DO in the region are Arlanza, Arribes (previously VdT Arribes del Duero), Bierzo, Cebreros, Cigales, Ribera del Duero, Rueda, Tierra de León, Tierra del Vino de Zamora, Toro and Valles de Benavente.

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