Form of plant protection without the use of chemicals, which is used in the various forms of production in viticulture (principles and general information are described in the keyword organic viticulture, the study of which is also recommended as a preparation for the complex topic). Biological plant protection is of great importance in Integrated Pest Management, where biological, chemical and physical measures are combined, and also in Organic Agriculture, where chemical measures are not allowed. The time of conventional plant protection with massive use of chemical toxins(pesticides) is finally over and belongs to the past.
The protection against harmful organisms and other destructive influences should not disturb the ecosystem and should be without toxic substances (poison). The needs of soil, climate, plants and animals are taken into account. The environment is thus protected as much as possible, the biological balance is not disturbed and biodiversity (species diversity) is guaranteed. The focus is on preventive protection before any measures are taken. Harmful organisms should not be exterminated as a matter of principle in order not to destroy unintentionally and counterproductively useful living beings, but to control their population so that they remain below the damage threshold. A pest can also be important in the cycle of nature under certain circumstances.
The oldest form was and is the manual collection of visible pests and the removal of damaged parts of plants. Another effective preventive measure is the cultivation of plants resistant to pests and diseases. This includes, for example, the use of fungus-resistant PIWI varieties and also the grafting of vines. As an alternative to pesticides, beneficial organisms are specifically used or promoted against pests, which destroy the pests as predators or parasites. These include, for example, insects such as ladybirds and lacewings as well as nematodes (threadworms).
Furthermore, there are manual, mechanical and technical measures for the preventive protection of the plants. These include animal traps such as glue rings on the trunk, beer traps or pheromone traps (using the confusing method), protective devices such as snail fences and bird nets, acoustic/optical devices to drive away harmful birds such as Klapotetz, scarecrows, tin foil strips or shooting devices, as well as frost protection. Fertilisation is carried out with organic substances (plant liquid manure, mulch, compost) or greening (green manure) with extensive avoidance of easily soluble mineral fertilisers. Plant strengthening agents are used for care.