Term for animal organisms or even micro-organisms that live, among other things, on vine pests (see under vine enemies), regulate their population and keep it at a limited level. They are divided into the two groups predators (insects that eat other insects) and parasites. The latter can also be insects that use others as hosts, but also micro-organisms such as nematodes, bacteria (for example Bacillus thuringiensis), fungi, protozoa (unicellular animals) and viruses. Predatory insects are divided into so-called protective predators, which are already present in sufficient numbers before a pest infestation and prevent colonisation by pests from the outset (for example, predatory mites and spiders), and so-called cleaning predators, which only migrate after a pest infestation and then rid the host plant of the pests (for example, lacewings and ladybirds).
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