Term for animal organisms or even micro-organisms that live, among other things, from pests of the vine (see under vine enemies), regulate their population and keep it to a limited extent. They are divided into two groups: predators (insects that eat other insects) and parasites. The latter can also be insects that use others as hosts, but also micro-organisms such as nematodes, bacteria (for example Bacillus thuringiensis), fungi, protozoa (unicellular animals) and viruses. Predatory insects can be divided into so-called protection predators, which are present in sufficient numbers even before a pest is infested and prevent colonisation by pests from the outset (e.g. predatory mites and spiders), and so-called purgatory predators, which only migrate after an infestation of pests and then free the host plant from the pests (e.g. lacewings and ladybirds).