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The state in Transcaucasia (with borders to Armenia and Georgia) has a wine-growing culture that is thousands of years old. In the settlements of Galabaglar, Galajig and Kültan (in the Nakhichevan sub-republic), seeds of cultivated grapes, stone tools for pressing and stone vessels for fermentation and storage have been found, dating back to the 2nd millennium BC. The Greek historian Herodotus (482-425 BC) reports that there was a highly developed vine and wine culture in the area as early as the 7th century BC. The Roman scholar Strabo (63 BC to 28 AD) also describes similar things from the 1st century AD.

In the former USSR, the state, which became independent in 1991, was still the second largest wine-growing region. In 2012, however, the vineyards covered only 16,000 hectares. This was an extreme reduction to one third compared to 2000. These are predominantly located west and north of the capital Baku near the Caspian Sea on the Apscheron peninsula. Of these, only 79,000 hectoliters of wine were pressed. The majority is used for the production of table grapes as well as distillates with the brand names "Bakü", "Gök-göl" and "Yubileyni".

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