The red grape variety originates from France. Synonyms are Aspiran, Aspiran Chernyi, Aspiran Csornuej, Aspiran Nero, Aspirant, Épiran, Esperan, Espiran, Peyral, Peyrar, Piran, Ribeyrenc, Rivairenc, Rivairenc Noir, Riveirenc, Riveirenc Noir, Riverain, Riveyrenc, Riveyrene, Spiran, Verdai, Verdal and Verdal Noir. It was first mentioned in 1544 under the name Esperan, then in 1676 under the name Espiran, and in the 18th and 19th centuries under the name Aspiran Noir, and the wine made from it was described. The region between Nimes and Montpellier in southern France is assumed to be the origin. The name Rivairenc is probably derived from the occurrence of the vines on river banks (rive de la rivière). The parentage is unknown. The variety was a crossing partner of the two new varieties Aspignan (1 and 2) and Aspiran Bouschet. There are four colour mutations called Aspiran Blanc (Rivairenc Blanc), Aspiran Gris (Rivairenc Gris), Aspiran Rouge Fonce (Rivairenc Rouge) and Aspiran Verdal (Rivairenc Verdal).