The region Apulia (ital. Puglia) with the capital Bari is located deep in the south of Italy on the Adriatic coast. The elongated region consists of the spur (the Gargano mountains) and the heel (the Salento peninsula) of the boot. The name goes back to the Apuli; a tribe of the Osker. The area is one of the oldest wine-growing regions in the world, as the Phoenicians and Greeks planted vines here 3,000 years ago. The Romans particularly appreciated the wine from Tarentum (port city of Taranto) and the poet Horace (65-8 B.C.) described the area as a place of "eternal spring". In contrast to the other southern regions of Italy, there are hardly any mountains, but the landscape consists of plateaus and flatlands. There is a dry-hot climate with little rainfall, so that in some places there is even artificial irrigation. The soils consist mainly of limestone, loam and sandstone.
Puglia has many autochthonous grape varieties, which are especially cared for and cultivated. The red wine varieties account for more than three quarters of the area; the most important are Aglianico, Aleatico, Barbera, Bonifacienco or Carenisca or Caricagiola(Parraleta), Bombino Nero, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Lambrusco Maestri, Malbech(Cot), Malvasia Nera di Lecce or Malvasia Nera di Brindisi, Merlot, Montepulciano, Notardomenico, Ottavianello(Cinsaut), Pinot Nero(Pinot Noir), Primitivo(Tribidrag), Sangiovese, Susumaniello and Uva di Troia(Nero di Troia).
The main white wine varieties are Bianco d'Alessano, Bombino Bianco, Chardonnay, Falanghina Beneventana, Falanghina Flegrea(Falanghina), Fiano, Francavidda, Greco di Tufo(Greco), Impigno, Malvasia Bianca di Candia, Malvasia Bianca od. Malvasia Toscana or Malvasia Bianca Lunga, Minutolo, Moscato or Moscato Bianco or Moscato di Trani(Muscat Blanc), Pampanuto, Pinot Bianco(Pinot Blanc), Pinot Grigio(Pinot Gris), Sauvignon(Sauvignon Blanc) and Verdeca
The vineyards cover 88,000 hectares of vineyard area. Most of Italy's wine is produced in Puglia. This is why the region is aptly named "Wine cellar of Italy or Europe". Together with Sicily it is at the top of the Italian wine production volume. The best qualities grow, climatically favoured by the proximity of the Adriatic and Ionian Seas, on the Habsburg island of Salento. However, the quality wines make up only less than 10% of the quantity. A large part of the wines is used for the distillation of industrial alcohol and for the production of simple mass wines. The six IGT areas (IGP) are Daunia, Murgia, Puglia, Salento, Tarantino and Valle d'Itria. The 28 DOC/DOCG zones are