Term (Greek apoplex = stroke) for sudden events with loss of consciousness or with partial paralysis. In viticulture this is also used for the poor condition of a vineyard with complete death of vines. The diseased vines gradually stop growing, the necrotized leaves turn yellow and wither, and productivity comes to a partial and then complete standstill. Sometimes apoplexy is also called the acute form of the wood disease Esca. Strictly speaking, however, this is not a specific disease, but the final symptom or extreme effect of various vine diseases. The causes are for example water stress (lack of water), extreme lack of nutrients, frost damage, fungal diseases such as Esca, eutypiosis or other various wood diseases such as Rugose Wood-Complex. In the wine this can be expressed by the UTA (atypical ageing tone). See also a complete list of all diseases and pests under vine enemies.