Animals can cause great damage to the vineyard by eating and contaminating the grapes, damaging parts of the vine (roots, stem, shoots, foliage) and transmitting diseases through various micro-organisms such as bacteria and viruses. Pests are various beetles and their larvae, butterflies and their caterpillars, aphids, snails, harmful birds, as well as vertebrates such as gophers, hares, deer, kangaroos, rabbits, rats, roe deer, wild boars and voles. However, many insects also appear as beneficial insects and some are used specifically as predators in the vineyard to control other insects.
The control of insects and larvae/caterpillars is carried out in a conventional form by specific pesticides (e.g. insecticides or nematicides). Protection against vertebrates is provided by mechanical devices such as nets, fences and traps, optical devices such as scarecrows, acoustic devices such as Klapotetz and shooting devices, and others such as fumigators. They are part of biological or integrated plant protection, as are the targeted use of beneficial insects and the so-called confusing method using pheromones (sexual scents). See also a complete list of all pests and diseases under the keyword vine enemies.