Important and objective component of quality control in viticulture. There are various methods to determine the quantity of the ingredients in wine in an objective and measurable form by means of technical, physical, optical and chemical aids. This is in contrast to sensory (organoleptic) testing, in which an assessment is made subjectively only by the human sense organs. When the official test number (in Germany) and the state test number (in Austria) are issued for quality wines (and thus also for Prädikat wines), an analytical test is obligatory. Among other things, the alcohol content (present, total), the total extract, the relative density, the residual sugar, the sulphurous acidity and (only for sparkling wine) the carbonic acid pressure are determined.