In contrast to bottle aging, under which rather only all positive changes during the development of a wine up to the climax are summarized, aging also includes all negative changes up to the "end of life". Even in ancient times, attempts were made to produce wines that were resistant to ageing, in order to achieve an improvement in taste through longer storage. Artificial ageing by heating or smoking was also common, as reported by the Greek physician Galen (129-216). In the Bible it is mentioned that old wine should be preferred to young wine, in Luke's Gospel 5.37 Jesus says: "And no one who has drunk old wine likes new. The Greeks and Romans recognized that wines with a high sugar content can be stored for a long time if kept cool. The best ancient wines, such as the famous Roman Falernian, were stored in tightly closed amphorae of clay and only reached their peak after many years. With the decline of the Roman Empire, the art of conservation fell into oblivion again.